What Did A Roman Triumph Actually Look Like?

Like the ceremony of deification, the Roman triumph (triumphus) is one of those rituals about which few readers may have a clear picture.  This is unfortunate, for the ceremonial triumph provides a very revealing window on certain aspects of Roman society.  Ancient writers mention it frequently, but almost always in passing; we are seldom offered a description of the event itself.  Fortunately, the Greek historian Appian has done just this in his writings (VIII.9.66), and it will be useful for us to relate the specifics here.

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The Man Of Action Should Not Expect Gratitude From Others

We have recently discussed ways of handling a lack of appreciation.  A certain independence of spirit–a soaring greatness of soul–is one of the main ways we can limit our expectations of appreciation from others.  Consider again, if you need to, the verses of Ibn Munir on this subject, which capture perfectly this spiritual independence.  As I see it, no more powerful statement of this ethic has ever been put into poetic form.

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